Kamis, 07 Maret 2013

The Methods of Exchange - Video for Listening Comprehension in English Classroom



If the principle of trading has existed since the mists of time, the methods of exchange have themselves evolved.

In the past we used to barter, which consisted in exchanging goods or crops. Today, each country has its own currency. Some countries adopt a common currency, like the euro in Europe.

Nowadays there are different ways of making your money bear fruit. For example, you can put your money on the stock market, whether in Bangkok or Tokyo.

Then you have to cross your fingers and hope the share value increases. But in reality, it's a lot more complex than mere superstition!

Some financial analysts compare the different markets, make forecasts on future interest rates in each country, and invest in fluctuating values.

For example, on this market, the most valued products are foodstuffs such as wheat, coffee or sugar. But all products, be they agricultural, industrial or other, have their own importance, since it's the fluctuation of their different values that make a country's economy function.

The gross national product represents the value of the goods and services acquired, in one year, by the economic activity in national or foreign territories, without taking depreciation into account.

It shouldn't be confused with the gross domestic product, the wealth created during the year inside the country!

However, a country must know how to balance its imports and exports. If it doesn't, it'll find itself with a trade imbalance which may either be a deficit or a surplus.

Economic activity follows three stages: the production of goods and services, the distribution of incomes, and the expenditure corresponding to consumption aimed at satisfying needs.

Whilst following its own economic policy, each country has to try and manage these three stages as best it can.

In a global economy, a country's government may no longer have control over certain variables, such as the exchange rate of its currency. Little by little, this may lead to a situation where it's no longer capable of managing its economy properly.

A rise in prices may harm the competitiveness of national products, in particular when inflation is greater than abroad. In that case, imports increase and money must be found to pay for the purchases.

This is particularly difficult since the price of national goods abroad is shooting up, reducing foreign sales. At the same time, companies have more and more trouble coping, and so reduce their output.

Manpower is in turn restricted, unemployment goes up and purchasing power falls considerably. A vicious circle thus takes hold...

This is one of the many scenarios that can turn a country upside down and widen the social divide. Unfortunately, there's no miracle solution to economic disparity!


See other video scripts of the same level (Business++):
The Methods of Exchange
How A Contract Is Concluded
Computer Technology
About Distribution
Visits from Foreign Sales Representatives
About Wine and Wine Making

Other script of different level can be found here:
Video for Listening Comprehension from Tell me More Business++ Level

How A Contract Is Concluded - Video for Listening Comprehension in English Classroom



Have you ever asked yourself how a contract is concluded? You must surely imagine very serious meetings attended by dozens of lawyers.

Maybe you’ve even got the image in your head of two chairmen on a golf course who, arriving at the eighteenth hole, shake hands to finalise their agreement.

In fact, everything begins here: in the secretary’s office. The future partners contact each other by phone to arrange a meeting.

The most difficult thing is agreeing on the legal and financial terms of the contract. Here, the two parties hope to find a common ground concerning the building of a new tourism complex.

The architect’s objective is to have his project accepted and the property developer’s, to get the best proposal for the least cost and with a reasonable period of construction.

The plans drawn up by the architect will probably undergo a few modifications because some of the proposals put forward risk turning out to be very costly.

The two men are trying to come to an agreement. They state their points of view and look for a way to overcome the possible obstacles. In a word, they negotiate.

The contract, now written, is then handed over to the lawyers who also try to get as much money out of the deal as possible. Their work consists in warning and protecting their clients from possible conflicts.

In fact, a contract resembles a sponge. Everyone wrings it to try and get a maximum out of it.

The lawyers have come to the end of their work and the contract is finally ready to be signed. At the last minute, the architect doesn’t agree with one of the clauses.

Some of the property developer’s demanded changes would considerably change the villas’ outward appearance and could jeopardise the deal’s success. He can’t accept such a thing.

Well, it’s always like that! Just into the final straight and within an inch of uncorking the champagne, a final problem arises. The architect demands an explanation as to why such changes are needed. He refuses to take part in a construction project of banal villas.

Now all he’s got left to do is redesign everything, or more or less, a good part of it. He modifies his plans and allows the developer to save lots of money. Everyone finally seems to be satisfied.

The secretary adds the last amendments to the contract’s text, the lawyers examine it a final time and the men shake hands. Who would have thought that negotiating a contract needed so much time, work and, above all, dialogue?


See other video scripts of the same level (Business++):
The Methods of Exchange
How A Contract Is Concluded
Computer Technology
About Distribution
Visits from Foreign Sales Representatives
About Wine and Wine Making
Other script of different level can be found here:
Video for Listening Comprehension from Tell me More Business++ Level

Computer Technology - Video for Listening Comprehension in English Classroom




What do you associate the word 'card' with? Of course, there are business cards, credit cards, or even phonecards, postcards...

But since the birth of the computer, we have created new types of cards: graphic cards, sound cards, video cards, network cards, fax modem cards or even more sophisticated: TV tuner cards.

Computers have truly enriched our vocabulary, but they’ve especially modified our working habits and our way of life.

Obviously, with the arrival of computers, the office appearance has changed. Gone are the records, large files and shelves full of paper!

The keyboard has replaced the pen and the screen, the sheet of paper. The only disadvantage: you can’t play basketball with the computer’s bin!

Before, we used floppy disks to save information. Then there were diskettes. Today, we use CD-ROMs and tomorrow there will be DVDs with an incredible storage capacity!

With a computer, typing has become less tedious than with a typewriter. A few taps and the document is corrected. All that’s left, therefore, is to print it out.

Computer science is a field in constant evolution: whether it be the storage capacity of disks, the speed of processors or even the size of computers.

It’s thus possible to transport your computer in a briefcase and to take it everywhere with you: to meetings, on business trips, home or even to a restaurant. Better yet, you don’t risk staining the files while rereading them.

Nowadays, planes are effectively full of businessmen with their eyes glued firmly to their screens. Previously they lost lots of time travelling, but today, with a laptop and a mobile phone, they make the most of the time taken up by travelling.

Computers are really practical! Moreover, there are now software that can correct grammar and spelling mistakes and even suggest synonyms. No more need to pay attention to correcting language. Well... almost!

But watch out if you’re a beginner! A simple touch of the wrong key and you can delete a document.

Either this businessman is on holiday, which we find hard to believe, or a practical joker has flooded his office and he’s sending out an SOS so that someone will come and rescue him. However, he doesn’t look too worried. The water can’t be too cold, then!

And here’s the person probably responsible for the flooding! Familiar with computers from a very young age, children no longer have any apprehension when facing a machine. They’re so mischievous and curious that they manage to do some fascinating things.

This little genius must surely be trying to connect to a military computer. Cross your fingers that he doesn’t trigger off the third world war!


See other video scripts of the same level (Business++):
The Methods of Exchange
How A Contract Is Concluded
Computer Technology
About Distribution
Visits from Foreign Sales Representatives
About Wine and Wine Making


Other script of different level can be found here:
Video for Listening Comprehension from Tell me More Business++ Level

About Distribution - Video for Listening Comprehension in English Classroom




In the field of distribution we use large means... or smaller ones! The only difference is the economies of scale.

To put good methods into practice, you have to start young, for example by delivering newspapers to people in the neighbourhood. Sometimes the delivery is done well, other times, it leaves a little to be desired. But that happens everywhere, even in large companies.

There are days when the goods dispatched from warehouses are faulty. Even if this is due to bad packaging, the products have to be replaced. When there are delivery errors, the problem is sorted out by the dispatch department.

The large distribution networks resort to different means of transport. Heavy goods vehicles are used in most cases, driven by long-distance lorry drivers who use the motorways, day and night.

They often get stuck in hold-ups on the roads approaching heavily built-up areas. Even if the journeys are tiring, they have to unload upon arrival and this is when trolleys are handy for covering the last few metres.

Despite the construction of motorway networks, rail is still used. Once the merchandise is loaded into the wagons, the freight is forwarded to its destination. The logistics are more complex, but there are fewer traffic jams!

We also use the oceans to transport products from one continent to another and canals inside the same country. The cargo is stowed on board the ships by dockers. Once arrived safe and sound, the operation is carried out backwards: the cranes come to life and the unloading can begin.

Then the lorries take over. In certain cases, air freighters are used. But this remains very costly.

Don't forget that good distribution begins with good packaging! There are different types of packaging: glass, paper, plastic, cardboard and wood, used for fruit and vegetable crates.

Everything is put on shelves, stacked and well organised to save time when treating the orders. Deadlines are very short in distribution. This explains the need for tools that are fast and efficient, because the keyword is efficiency, even on a local level.

As everybody knows, the customer is always right. We help them put their purchases into bags and can deliver to their homes. Or they can even benefit from mail-order services. The client orders over the phone and a few days later, we deliver the product in question.

With a credit card, all you have to do is sign on the dotted line! In cities, where the keyword is speed, we call on the services of a courier. Once in possession of the address, he picks up the parcel and takes it, double quick, to the addressee.

You have to know the names of all the streets if you are a courier. This one looks like he's a little lost and this one is going faster than the wind! His boss is going to be happy!


See other video scripts of the same level (Business++):
The Methods of Exchange
How A Contract Is Concluded
Computer Technology
About Distribution
Visits from Foreign Sales Representatives
About Wine and Wine Making

Other script of different level can be found here:
Video for Listening Comprehension from Tell me More Business++ Level

Minggu, 03 Maret 2013

Visits from Foreign Sales Representatives - Video for Listening Comprehension in English Classroom



In all large international companies it's quite common to receive visits from foreign sales representatives. Our company organises their stay from A to Z.

We make the reservations with the airlines who then send the tickets directly to the passengers. All they've got to do then is make their way to the airport. We always try to work with reputable airlines. That way, the reps arrive satisfied and fresh, despite the jet lag.

As business trips never last long, travellers don't get burdened with several suitcases... Unless they've decided to take advantage of the journey to stay on for a few more days!

Today, one of our employees is going to the airport to meet a foreign client. He accompanies him to his hotel, which is just a stone's throw from our company. That way, the client will avoid the traffic jams the following morning and any connection problems on public transport.

Of course, he has access to all the company's facilities: a photocopier, a printer, a telephone and an answering machine with fax. This lets him stay in touch with his family.

The following day, discussions get under way first thing in the morning. First of all the client listens to our plans and proposals before speaking himself. He shows us a few diagrams and some pie charts which set out the financial breakdown. When the figures are excellent, the demonstration is all the easier!

The client's proposals are worth thinking about, so our sales department studies them in detail. Then the legal department takes care of drawing up the terms of a new contract.

Come the evening, the director invites the client to a restaurant, then takes him to a ballet, if that suits him. Although the atmosphere is more relaxed, both of them are thinking about the same thing: the terms of the new contract!

The following morning, at breakfast, everybody's already engrossed in the documents. The client checks the details of the contract and, one last time, contacts his company by electronic mail. Once the terms of the contract are accepted, everybody meets to sign it. A bottle of champagne is immediately uncorked!

You must always stay confident, even when the situation seems blocked. Now the client can make the most of what's left of his time to visit the city. One of our secretaries has arranged his itinerary for tomorrow: a guided tour in the morning, followed by an afternoon's shopping so that he can get some souvenirs for his family!

The day ends in a superb restaurant, with the director and a few employees, where the contract is suitably celebrated!


See other video scripts of the same level (Business++):
The Methods of Exchange
How A Contract Is Concluded
Computer Technology
About Distribution
Visits from Foreign Sales Representatives
About Wine and Wine Making

Other script of different level can be found here:
Video for Listening Comprehension from Tell me More Business++ Level

Jumat, 01 Maret 2013

About Wine and Wine Making - Video for Listening Comprehension in English Classroom



Wine production requires lots of work. Everything begins with the vinestocks which generally require a temperate climate. Vine-growing, like any other type of farming, depends enormously on the weather conditions.

The famous vine-growing regions, like Bordeaux in France, Tuscany in Italy, Rioja in Spain or even Franconia in Germany, are all crossed by large rivers.

A rainy spring or high temperatures will have an influence on the sweetness and acidity of the grape. When the fruit has reached the necessary ripeness, grape harvesting can begin.

The bunches are taken to the winepress. At this stage of the production, you have to decide whether to make white wine, red or rosé. Red wine is made with black grapes, and white wine with green grapes or black grapes without their skin.

After ageing in a cask, the wine is bottled and stocked in a cellar. At regular intervals, someone tastes the wine to make sure there are no chemical reactions that might alter its taste. This man is checking the wine's colour, aroma and bouquet.

Normally a wine taster mustn't swallow the wine. What a shame not to drink such a fine wine! Luckily he drinks some anyway! Imagine a baker who'd never tasted his own bread. By chance this man lives and works in the grounds, so he won't need to drive home!

A good wine makes its own reputation. No need for a commercial set in the tropics to praise its qualities.

Nonetheless, the information on the label is sometimes useful to distinguish a table wine from a fortified wine or a syrupy wine, or else to find out if it must be served at room temperature or chilled.

In good restaurants, the wine waiter himself goes down into the cellar to fetch the wines. When he chooses a bottle, he blows on it delicately to remove the dust.

Having spent all that time in a cellar, a bottle must be opened carefully. There's no point keeping it in the dark at a constant temperature for so long, if you don't let the liquid breathe before drinking it.

The wine waiter opens the bottle and smells the cork to make sure the wine hasn't changed into vinegar! This happens from time to time, even though we've known how to make wine for a few thousand years!

A good wine, that's to say a vintage wine, is meant to be savoured. A glass of Château Lafite-Rothschild should be drunk slowly, as you don't get to drink some every day!

And finally, even if you don't particularly appreciate the taste of wine, you can quite simply admire its colour: no two bottles are alike!


See other video scripts of the same level (Business++):

The Methods of Exchange
How A Contract Is Concluded
Computer Technology
About Distribution
Visits from Foreign Sales Representatives
About Wine and Wine Making


Other script of different level can be found here:
Video for Listening Comprehension from Tell me More Business++ Level
Video for Listening Comprehension from Tell me More Business+ Level

Means of Transport - Video for Listening Comprehension in English Classroom






The number of people who travel by plane today is considerable. Did you know that every five seconds a passenger walks up to a check-in desk?

Once your luggage is checked in, you can make your way to the duty-free shop, then to the boarding lounge where you can finally get on board the plane that is on the runway. The air hostess welcomes you warmly.

Get comfortable in your seat, fasten your seat belt, relax and wait for the air hostess to bring you a refreshment and something to eat.

You can even sleep a little, the seats are so comfortable these days. Unless you don’t feel very safe in planes!

In that case, pay attention to the safety instructions and the crew’s demonstration that tells you what you must do in the event of an emergency.

Fortunately, you’ve got a place next to the emergency exit! You’d be the first one to jump out if everything you imagine actually took place.

But you’d have first the responsibility of opening the door! A difficult task to assume! Despite your apprehension, you should know that the aeroplane is one of the safest means of transport.

Another aircraft that is just in front of yours has probably already taken on board new passengers or maybe another cargo. It is getting ready to take off. Nowadays, refuelling can be done in under an hour.

The plane has become a means of transport almost as used as the others, so much so that when one lands, another takes off from another runway.

Just imagine all those people in the air at the same time, all those meals to be served, all those suitcases to be sorted out and all those passports to be controlled!

The stations are also packed with people. In cities, most of the passengers are in fact commuters who are making their way to work.

A century ago the train occupied the place that the aeroplane has today. Apart from the minimal risk of a derailment or a murder on the Orient-Express, the train is also a very safe means of transport.

Going from one town to another can, however, be a perilous adventure: what with the possible delays, strikes, train cancellations, power failures or even flooded stations, your journey can transform itself into a real assault course!

Despite all this, you can relax in the train, even sleep, read the newspaper, make friends with other passengers, watch the countryside go by...

If you’re not in a hurry, there’s immediate boarding for a cruise in the South Pacific! Mind you don’t get seasick!

The captain and his crew wish you a pleasant stay on board their boat and inform you of the activities and games organised throughout the crossing. Have a nice trip!


See other video scripts of the same level (Business+):
On Holyday
Investing
Store Manager
About Work
The Hotel Service
Means of Transport 

On Holyday - Video for Listening Comprehension in English Classroom



It's often in spring that we start to think about the summer holidays. April showers give us the blues, and only the summer sun's rays can make them disappear. So we start flicking through the travel agency's brochures. We choose a destination and buy the tickets.

But you mustn't make the decision lightly, because it's important to choose the right type of holiday that you want to spend.

Some people prefer cultural holidays to enrich their knowledge of a civilisation. Maybe they'll be fascinated by Egypt and the Pharaohs and go and admire the Sphinx and the Pyramids of Cairo, comfortably seated on a camel! Others prefer Greek ruins, like the Acropolis.

This type of holiday can be too boring for certain people. So they look for adventure... So much so that they find it! They see the holidays as an opportunity to gain new experiences, come winter, come summer.

Children like winter sports as well, but accidents can still happen. In the summer, the hiker takes possession of his domain: the mountain! For climbing, good shoes are a must, otherwise watch out for blisters! No question that going up in a chair lift is quicker, but the result is the same: at the summit, the view is breathtaking!

Here, you live in the wild. You're camping. You eat what you can catch in the lake. For those of you who don't like fish, the fortnight promises to be very difficult! So why not go on safari then, admire wild animals and discover a new country, see elephants up close as well as zebras.

You can also visit national parks like the Grand Canyon, where everything is done to preserve the flora and fauna. There are even some regions that are so hostile that Man struggles to survive, because he has to constantly do battle with the elements and bad weather.

For those who are looking more for a peaceful holiday, there are cruises. You travel from one island to another, you sunbathe, you have a great time and you get some rest, which, for most people, is the main aim of a holiday.

So what does the boat's captain do when he is on holiday? He certainly doesn't go to the office, like most other people do fifty weeks a year!

But before leaving, holiday-makers must not forget: their passport, their address book for writing postcards and above all their camera... Because if the sunset disappears, they'll always have the photo!


See other video scripts of the same level (Business+):
On Holyday
Investing
Store Manager
About Work
The Hotel Service
Means of Transport