Senin, 17 Desember 2012

Psychosocial Development: Erik Erikson’s Childhood Stages of Conflict

Trust Vs. Mistrust (0-1 Year)
  • Description: Infants depend on others to meet their basic needs, and therefore must be able to blindly trust the caregivers to provide them.
  • Positive outcome: If their needs are met consistently and responsively, infants will learn to trust their environment and people in it.
  • Negative outcome: If needs are not responsibly met, infant may view world as a dangerous and unreliable place.

Autonomy Vs. Shame/Doubt (1-2 Years)
  • Description: Toddlers learn to explore and do things for themselves. Their self-control and self-confidence begin to develop at this stage.
  • Positive outcome: If child is encouraged to explore and reassured when mistakes are made, he/she will develop confidence needed to cope with future situations that require choice, control, and independence.
  • Negative outcome: If parents are overprotective or extremely critical, child may feel ashamed of behaviors and doubt his/her abilities.

Initiative Vs. Guilt (2-6 Years)
  • Description: Children begin to interact with environment in more “adult like” manner as motor and language skills develop.  They learn to maintain an eagerness for adventure and play, while learning to control impulsive behavior. 
  • Positive outcome: If parents are encouraging, but consistent in discipline, children will learn to accept concept of right/wrong without guilt, and not feel shame when using their imagination and engaging in fantasy play. 
  • Negative outcome: If not, children may develop a sense of guilt and may come to believe that it is wrong to be independent.

Competence/Industry Vs. Inferiority (6-12 Years)
  • Description: School is the important event at this stage. Children learn to master basic social and academic skills.  Peers become the key social agent and children begin to compare themselves with others outside of the family. 
  • Positive outcome: If children can find pleasure in learning, being productive, and seeking success, they will develop a sense of competence. 
  • Negative outcome: If not, they will develop feelings of inferiority. 

Identity Vs. Role Confusion (12-20 Years)
  • Description: This is the crossroad between childhood and maturity when adolescents ask "Who am I?" The key social agent is the person’s society of peers. 
  • Positive outcome: Adolescents who solve this conflict successfully will develop a strong identity, and will be ready to plan for the future.
  • Negative outcome: If not, the adolescent will sink into confusion, unable to make decisions and choices about his/her role in life. 

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