Senin, 17 Desember 2012

Considering Cognitive and Psychosocial Aspects in Teaching English for Young Learners

Trust vs Mistrust
Autonomy vs Shame/Doubt
Initiative vs Guilt
Initiative vs Guilt
Concrete Operations
Competence/Industry vs Inferiority
Formal Operations
Identity vs Role Confusion

Birth-1 Year of Age
  • Interacts and learns by sensory and motor experiences. 
  • Begins learning to control body and use it to obtain needs. 
  • Early stage learning of object permanence (mother).
Trust Vs Mistrust
  • Infants depend on caregivers to respond to their sensorimotor communications and meet their basic needs
Age 1-2
  • Still interacts and learns by sensory and motor experiences, but is more efficient at doing so. 
  • The ability to walk allows child to expand his/her sensory world..
Autonomy Vs. Shame/Doubt
  • Toddlers learn to explore and do things for themselves. Their self-control and self-confidence begin to develop at this stage. 
Age 2-6/7
  • Language development is prominent. 
  • Fantasy/imaginary play becomes key in learning about and expressing their understanding of the world.  
  • Child’s view of the world is egocentric.
  • Formal logic is not a part of their thinking..
Initiative Vs. Guilt
  • Children begin to interact with environment using motor and language skills.  
  • Impulse control is initiated by external structure.
  • Guilt can often stem from an egocentric understanding of the world around them.
Age 6/7-12
Concrete Operations
  • Perform logical operations (i.e. basic math skills, categorical, thinking), but only in relation to concrete objects, not abstract ideas.
  • Able to understand a situation from another person’s perspective.
Competence Vs. Inferiority
  • School is a central part of life at this stage. Children learn to master basic social and academic skills.  
  • Peers are the key social agent and they begin to compare themselves to other children.
Age 12-20
Formal Operations
  • Abstract, theoretical, philosophical, and scientific reasoning becomes possible.
  • Long term cause and effect speculations begin to occur.
  • Adolescents begin to question, reinterpret and revise their previous knowledge base.
Identity Vs. Role Confusion
  • Adolescents begin to ask the question, "Who am I?" 
  • The adolescent typically relies on his/her society of peers to help resolve the inner conflicts.

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